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A programme of work clinical reasoning curricula in undergraduate medical education


Anna Hammond

Dr Anna Hammond

Deputy MB BS Programme Director, Academic Lead for Clinical Skills and Reasoning, and Director of Communication Skills Teaching

Lucy Ambrose

Professor Lucy Ambrose

MB BS Programme Director



Why this research is needed

Effective clinical reasoning is required for safe patient care. Students and postgraduate trainees largely learn the knowledge, skills and behaviours required for effective clinical reasoning implicitly, through experience and apprenticeship. There is a growing consensus that medical schools should teach clinical reasoning in a way that is explicitly integrated into courses throughout each year, adopting a systematic approach consistent with current evidence. However, the clinical reasoning literature is ‘fragmented’ and can be difficult for medical educators to access.

What we are doing

We are embedding our clinical reasoning research into our teaching throughout the MBBS.

We also designed, developed and teach a very popular unique and specialised ‘teaching clinical reasoning’ module on the HPE programme.


Cooper, N., Bartlett, M., Gay, S., Hammond, A., Lillicrap, M., Matthan, J., ... & UK Clinical Reasoning in Medical Education (CReME) consensus statement group. (2021). Consensus statement on the content of clinical reasoning curricula in undergraduate medical education. Medical Teacher, 43(2), 152-159.

Hammond, A., & Gay, S. (2022). Shared Decision-making. ABC of Clinical Reasoning, 29.

Buckley, S., Ambrose, L., Anderson, E., Coleman, J. J., Hensman, M., Hirsch, C., ... & Stewart, J. (2016). Tools for structured team communication in pre-registration health professions education: a Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME) review: BEME Guide No. 41. Medical teacher, 38(10), 966-980.

Ambrose, P. A. (2019). Reader response: Clinical Reasoning: A 56-year-old woman with acute vertigo and diplopia. Neurology, 92(5), 248-248.

Ambrose, L. (2020). Remote consulting: recognising the cognitive load. The British Journal of General Practice, 70(695), 295.

Contact us

We welcome enquiries about policy and guidance, collaborations, our research, tutor training, or opportunities to visit or study with us in the Health Professions Education Unit.