50% reduced risk of recurrence in cellulitis of the leg; suggested the merits of prophylactic penicillin in high-risk groups. (N Eng J Med, 2013)
The study found that penicillin was effective in preventing subsequent attacks of cellulitis during the prophylaxis phase. The median time to a first recurrence of cellulitis was longer in the penicillin group compared to the placebo group.
During the prophylaxis phase, fewer participants in the penicillin group had a recurrence compared to the placebo group. However, once the drug therapy was stopped, there was no difference between the groups in the rate of a first recurrence.
Overall, participants in the penicillin group had fewer repeat episodes than those in the placebo group.